Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran
Ventriculomegaly is defined as dilation of the fetal cerebral ventricles and is a relatively common finding on prenatal ultrasound. The purpose of this lecture is to review the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of mild fetal ventriculomegaly.When enlargement of the lateral ventricles (≥10 mm) is identified, a thorough evaluation should be performed, including detailed sonographic evaluation of fetal anatomy, amniocentesis for karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis, and a workup for fetal infection.
In some cases, fetal magnetic resonance imaging may identify other central nervous system abnormalities and should be considered when this technology as well as expert interpretation is available.
Follow-up ultrasound examination should be performed to assess for progression of the ventricular dilation. In the setting of isolated ventriculomegaly of 10-12 mm, the likelihood of survival with normal neurodevelopment is >90%. With moderate ventriculomegaly (13-15 mm), the likelihood of normal neurodevelopment is 75-93%. The following are Society for Maternal- Fetal Medicine recommendations: We suggest that ventriculomegaly be characterized as mild (10-12 mm), moderate (13-15 mm), or severe (>15 mm) for the purposes of patient counseling, given that the chance of an adverse outcome and potential for other abnormalities are higher when the ventriclesmeasure 13-15 mm vs 10-12 mm (GRADE 2B); we recommend that diagnostic testing (amniocentesis) with chromosomal microarray analysis should be offered when ventriculomegaly is detected (GRADE 1B); we recommend testing for cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis when ventriculomegaly is detected, regardless of known exposure or symptoms (GRADE 1B); we suggest that magnetic resonance imaging be considered in cases of mild or moderate fetal ventriculomegaly when this modality and expert radiologic interpretation are available; magnetic resonance imaging is likely to be of less value if the patient has had a detailed ultrasound performed by an individual with specific experience and expertise in sonographic imaging of the fetal brain (GRADE 2B); we recommend that timing and mode of delivery be based on standard obstetric indications (GRADE 1C); we recommend that with isolated mild ventriculomegaly of 10-12 mm, after a complete evaluation, women be counseled that the outcome is favorable, and the infant is likely to be normal (GRADE 1B); we recommend that with isolated moderate ventriculomegaly of 13-15 mm, after a complete evaluation, women be counseled that the outcome is likely to be favorable but that there is an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities (GRADE 1B).