The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) can be very challenging due to the variable clinical features and the lack of a definitive test. MRI is a proved diagnostic tool for Diagnosis of MS lesions and showing the spatial and temporal dissemination of the plaques. In addition, MRI plays an important role in ruling out differential diagnoses of MS. In this lecture the aim is to describe the typical MRI features of MS and present a series of common cases Simulating MS with especial attention to their discriminating features from MS.
The mimic diseases are neuromyelitis Optica and vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, periventricular multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy. There are also multiple infectious entities that mimic MS including Tuberculosis, Toxoplasmosis, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Varicella zoster virus, Cryptococcus Epstein Barr virus, and Human immunodeficiency virus. In addition, there are leukoencephalopathies that can present in adulthoodincludingCerebralautosomaldominant idiopathic leukoencephalopathy, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Leigh’s and Alexanders disease that could be mistaken for MS.