Assistant Professor of Radiology Imam Hossein Hospital Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Cavitary pulmonary lesions are a common finding on radiology imaging studies, and can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions. These lesions are characterized by the presence of a hollow space within the lung tissue, which may be filled with fluid, air, or debris. The differential diagnosis for cavitary pulmonary lesions includes infectious causes such as tuberculosis and fungal infections, as well as non-infectious causes such as malignancy and vasculitis. Radiologic features that may aid in distinguishing between these various etiologies include the size and shape of the lesion, the presence of surrounding inflammation or consolidation, and the pattern of enhancement on contrast- enhanced imaging studies. It is also essential to distinguish a cavity from other pathologic conditions such as air cyst, bullae, cystic bronchiectasis and emphysema. Accurate diagnosis of cavitary pulmonary lesions is essential for appropriate management and treatment planning.