Spinal dysraphism is a term for congenital malformations of spine and spinal cord.
The imaging modality of choice for diagnosing spinal dysraphism is MRI but it is a complicated process because of heterogeneous nature of congenital malformations of the spinal cord. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of spinal dysraphism.
Spinal dysraphism is devided in to open and closed type on the basis of presence or absence of skin coverage of neural tissue.
Open spinal dysraphisms are categorized to subgroups regarding to the position of the neural placode relative to the skin surface. If the neural placode is flush with the skin surface it is called myelocele and the neural placode protrudes above the skin surface is called myelomeningocele.
Closed spinal dysraphisms are devided to two smaller groups which are: 1.With subcutaneus mass and 2.without subcutaneous mass. The second group is categorized as simple and complex states, closed spinal dysraphisms with subcutaneous mass including meningocele (CSF containing dural sac herniation), lipomyelocele (neural placode – lipoma interface within the spinal canal), lipomyelomeningocele (neural placode – lipoma interface outside of the spinal canal), terminal myelocystocele (terminal syrinx herniation to posterior meningocele), Myelocystocele (herniation of dilated central canal from posterior spina bifida).
MRI is the best imaging choice for diagnosis and
evaluation of these abnormalities.
The subgroup of simple closed spinal dysraphism without subcutaneous mass including intradural lipoma, philar lipoma, tight philum terminale, persistent terminal ventricle and dermal sinus. The complex subgroup of closed spinal dysrahism without sub cutaneous mass is devided to 1.midline notochordal integration and 2.disorders of notochordal formation. the first group contains: 1.dorsal enteric fistula 2.neuroenteric cyst and 3.diastematomyeli the second group includes 1. Caudal agenesis and 2. Segmental spinal dysgenesis
.05pt'> techniques for evaluation of common pediatric gastrointestinal diseases such as GER and HPS and their sonographic appearances.
Also, I review imaging characteristics of Hirschprung disease.
Target audience includes Radiology residents, Radiologists and Pediatricians.