Shahid Akbarabadi, Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences(IUMS), Tehran, Iran
Endometrial polyps are sessile masses of variable size that project into the endometrial cavity. They may be asymptomatic or symptomatic, causing abnormal bleeding if they ulcerate or undergo necrosis.
Tamoxifen therapy is a risk factor for the development of endometrial polyps; polyps develop in 8% to 36% of postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen.
Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) is the primary modality for assessing endometrial abnor-mality. Sonohysterography (saline infusion sonogram) is more accurate than ultrasound (US) alone in making a diagnosis of endometrial polyps. However, these lesions often cannot be separated from the surrounding endometrium because the whole endometrium may appear diffusely thickened. As endometrial thickening is a nonspecific US finding, it should be correlated with the patient’s age, symptoms, and hormonal status.
To make a specific diagnosis in these circumstances, endometrial cytology, biopsy, and curettage have been the mainstays of preoperative diagnosis. As these procedures are commonly performed in a blind manner, it is not always possible to make a definitive and cervix) and posterior compartment(rectum ,anal canal) for anatomical defects, tissue biomechanics and prosthetic implants dislodgement. The study performs in rest, squeeze and straining with benefit of real time access to patient.
3D & 4D US may allow dynamic assessment of anatomy in the axial plane with the advantage of tomographic images for quantification of levator defects. Us also benefits from low cost, easy availability and good access to patient.